Selasa, 25 September 2012

LINGUISTICS ASPECT OF INTERLANGUAGE

Chapter I INTRODUCTION Interlanguage (IL) is defined in the Principles and Parameters perspective as intermediate states of L2 development (IL1, IL2, IL3, etc.), which is compatible with the notion of IL as “interim grammars” that was introduced in the 1960s and 1970s. on the other hand interlanguage is gap between language target (second language) and first language. In the meeting before we had talk about psycholinguistic aspect of interlanguage and social aspect of interlanguage so we are going to talk about linguistic aspect of interlanguage. In linguistic aspect of interlanguage, there are some component consisting of relative clause, universal grammar, access universal grammar, learnability, the critical period of hypothesis, markedness and cognitive versus linguistic explanation. So you can easily follow this discussion because we have given some component of linguistic aspect of interlanguage. Let us follow this discussion. Chapter II LINGUISTICS ASPECT OF INTERLANGUAGE A. Typological universals: relative clauses English as one of language that has relative clause make someone who learn english to combine to sentence which have as independence and dependence sentence. For example relative clause: The man who came here yesterday is my uncle. The accessibility hierarchy is implicational in the sense that the presence of a relative pronoun function low in the order in a particular language implies the presence of all the pronoun function above it but not those below it. For example any language that permit the direct object function will necessarily permit the subject function but may not allow the indirect object function. B. Universal Garmmar Unversal grammar is introduced by Noam Chomsky. Chomsky argues that the language is governed by set of highly abstract principles that provide parameter which are given particular setting in different language. A general principle of language is that it permits co-reference by means of some form of reflexive. For example The actress blamed herself The actress as subject in the example above has reflexive that is herself. The language just permits two co-reference that is local binding and long-distance binding. From example below we can distinguish about them namely Emily knew the actress would blame herself. According to the example above, we know “the actress is not reflexive to “Emily” but it is reflexive to “the actress”. We call it “local binding”. However if we translate to Japanese language that we will be ambiguous because herself can be reflexive to “the actress” and “Emily” that we call it “local distance binding”. So local binding is reflexive from the object of sentence to subject of sentence that use same people in sentence match with example above “herself” to “The actress”. Whereas local distance binding is reflexive from the object of sentence that can become to subject of independent and dependent clause such as “herself” to “the actress and Emily”. Local distance binding can make listener ambiguous to understand that sentence. However we must know according to Rod Ellis (1997) that English only permit local binding. C. Access to universal grammar There is a number of theoretical position for accessing to universal grammar consisting of: 1. Complete access It is argued that learner begin with the parameter setting of their L1 but subsequently learn to switch to the L2 parameter setting. An assumption is that full target language competence and there is no such thing as a critical period. 2. No access Universal is not available to adult L2 learner. They rely on general learning strategies. According to this position L1 and L2 acquisition are fundamentally different. Adult L2 learner will normally not be able to achieve full competence and their interlanguage may manifest impossible rules. 3. Partial access The learners have access to parts of universal grammar but not others. For example they may have access to only those Universal Grammar parameters operative in their L1. However they may be able to switch to the L2 parameter setting with the help of direct instruction involving error correction. 4. Dual access L2 learners make use of both Universal Grammar and General learning strategis. However the use of general learning strategies can block the operation of Universal grammar causing learner to produce impossible error and to fail to achieve full competence. D. Learnability Chomsky has claimed that children learning their L1 must rely on innate knowledge of language because otherwise the task facing them is an impossible one. Poverty of the stimulus is insufficiency input to discover the rules of language what they are trying to learn. There are two kind of inputs consisting of: 1. Positive evidence. It provides information only about what is grammatical in the language because the learner can never be sure they will not hear a sentence where the adverb is between the verb and direct object. 2. Negative evidence The input that provides direct evidence of what is ungrammatical in a language would make it possible for children to find out that sentences like the one above are ungrammatical. E. The critical period hypothesis The critical period hypothesis state there is a period during which language acquisition is easy and complete (for example native speaker ability is achieved) and beyond which it is difficult and typically incomplete. The hypothesis was grounded in research which showed that people who lost their linguistic capabilities. F. Markedness The study of makedness refers to the general idea that some structures are more natural or basic than other structures. Marked structures are those that lie outside universal grammar. For example have arisen as a result of historical accident. In addition attempts have also been made to distinguish degree of markedness in the different setting of a parameter of universal grammar. For example local binding of reflexive is considered unmarked in relation to long distance binding. G. Cognitive versus linguistic explanations In this way cognitive abilities can assist the learner to learn L2 as language target in second language acquisition. For instance someone who have knowledge about language will be easily to learn language because her/his cognitive abilities can help to explain the theory of language

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